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Biomarkers for monitoring the equine large intestinal inflammatory response to stress-induced dysbiosis and probiotic supplementation

Abstract : Large intestine barrier disturbances can have serious consequences for the health of horses. The loss of mucosal integrity that leads to increased intestinal permeability may result from a local inflammatory immune response following alterations of the microbiota, known as dysbiosis. Therefore, our research aimed to identify non-invasive biomarkers for studying the intestinal permeability and the local inflammatory immune response in horses. Regarding the biomarkers used in other mammalian species, we measured the concentrations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), reflected by 3-OH C14, C16, and C18 fatty acids, in blood, and fecal secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA). These biomarkers were evaluated in two trials including nine and twelve healthy horses, which developed large intestinal dysbiosis experimentally induced by five days of antibiotic administration (trimethoprim sulfadiazine [TMS]) or five days of abrupt introduction of high starch levels (barley) into the diet. Horses were either control or supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Ligilactobacillus salivarius, and Bifidobacterium lactis. Correlations were performed between biomarkers and fecal bacterial diversity, composition, and function. No significant interaction between day and supplementation, or supplementation effect were observed for each biomarker. However, with the dietary stressor, a significant increase in blood concentrations of 3-OH C16 (P = 0.0125) and C14 (P = 0.0252) fatty acids was measured two days after the cessation of barley administration. Furthermore, with the antibiotic stressor, blood levels of 3-OH C16 progressively increased (P = 0.0114) from the first day to two days after the end of TMS administration. No significant day effect was observed for fecal SIgA concentrations for both stressors. These results indicate that both antibiotic- and diet-induced dysbiosis resulted in a local translocation of LPS two days after the cessation of the stressor treatments, suggesting an impairment of intestinal permeability, without detectable local inflammation. Blood LPS and fecal SIgA concentrations were significantly correlated with several bacterial variations in the large intestine, which are features of antibiotic- and diet-induced dysbiosis. These findings support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between dysbiosis and the loss of mucosal integrity in the large intestine of horses.
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Submitted on : Friday, August 26, 2022 - 1:49:24 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, August 27, 2022 - 3:23:56 AM

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Axelle Collinet, Pauline Grimm, Emmanuel Jacotot, Véronique Julliand. Biomarkers for monitoring the equine large intestinal inflammatory response to stress-induced dysbiosis and probiotic supplementation. Journal of Animal Science, American Society of Animal Science, 2022, ⟨10.1093/jas/skac268⟩. ⟨hal-03761776⟩

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