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Potential of Microorganisms to Decrease the “Beany” Off-Flavor: A Review

Estelle Fischer 1 Nathalie Cayot 2 Rémy Cachon 3 
2 PCAV - Physico-Chimie de l'Aliment et du Vin
PAM - Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques [Dijon]
3 FBI - Food Biotech&Innovation
PAM - Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques [Dijon]
Abstract : Vegetable proteins are in high demand due to current issues surrounding meat consumption and changes in eating habits, but they are still not accepted by consumers due to their strong bitterness, astringent taste, and “beany” off-flavor. This review aimed to give an overview of the “beany” off-flavor and the potential of microorganisms to decrease it. Twenty-six volatile compounds were identified from the literature as contributing to the “beany” off-flavor, and their formation pathways were identified in a legume matrix, pea. Biotechnological ways to improve the flavor by reducing these volatile compounds were then looked over. As aldehydes and ketones are the main type of compounds directly linked to the “beany” off-flavor, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were focused on. By converting aldehyde and ketones into alcohols or carboxylic acids, these two enzymes have the potential to decrease the off-flavor. The presence of the two enzymes in a selection of microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Gluconobacter suboxydans) was done with a catabolism and a bioinformatical study. Finally, the correlation between the presence of the enzyme and the efficacy to improve the flavor was investigated by comparison with the literature. The presence of ADH and/or ALDH in the strain metabolism seems linked to an odor improvement. Especially, a constitutive enzyme (ADH or ALDH) in the catabolism should give better results, showing that some fermentative types are more inclined to better the flavor. Obligatory fermentative strains, with a constitutive ADH, or acetic acid bacteria, with constitutive ADH and ALDH, show the best results and should be favored to reduce the amount of compounds involved in the “beany” off-flavor and diminish that off-flavor in legume proteins.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 21, 2022 - 2:10:11 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 22, 2022 - 3:35:00 AM

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Estelle Fischer, Nathalie Cayot, Rémy Cachon. Potential of Microorganisms to Decrease the “Beany” Off-Flavor: A Review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 2022, 70 (15), pp.4493-4508. ⟨10.1021/acs.jafc.1c07505⟩. ⟨hal-03648333⟩

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