Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
New interface
Journal articles

Iron intake among Lebanese women: sociodemographic factors, iron-rich dietary patterns, and preparation of hummus, a Mediterranean dish

Abstract : Background: Plant-based foods such as hummus are alternative to animal protein, and when properly pre-pared, they help to alleviate nutritional iron deficiency that leads to anemia, a global health problem. Objective: The objective was to assess iron intake among Lebanese women and related participant’s charac-teristics, discern iron-rich dietary patterns, evaluate their association with nutrients intake and participant’s sociodemographic characteristics, and identify the women preparing hummus traditionally and properly for an enhanced iron bioavailability. Design: A cross-sectional study of 400 Lebanese women (18–74 years old) was conducted in Lebanon. Data from a questionnaire, including sociodemographic and health characteristics, dietary intake, and hummus preparation and consumption, were collected. Dietary data were obtained by a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Linear regression and binomial logistic regression models were used to explore the association between the intake of dietary iron, its patterns, and the participants’ characteristics. Results: About 60% of the women had iron intake deficiency, especially with lower income (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.107, 3.194). Four iron-rich dietary patterns were identified: legumes; organ/lunch meat and chicken; canned fish; and beef and hummus. The factor scores of the latter were posi-tively correlated with protein, vitamin C, iron, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin A with r = 0.195 and P < 0.01 for all. No significant difference was shown among the women’s sociodemographic characteristics for the con-sumption of the hummus-related pattern. Only 9.2 and 22.7% of the women considered proper preparation of chickpea and hummus, respectively, which significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with older women (66.7%). Discussion & Conclusion: The majority of the Lebanese women still have iron intake deficiency and the minority reported proper preparation of hummus. Intervention programs spreading awareness among Lebanese women are needed for encouraging adequate iron intake and considering proper steps to improve iron bioavailability from plant-based food.
Complete list of metadata
Contributor : Institut Agro Dijon Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Thursday, January 28, 2021 - 12:20:33 PM
Last modification on : Monday, November 21, 2022 - 3:53:19 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, April 29, 2021 - 6:44:26 PM


Publisher files allowed on an open archive



Nour Doumani, Jacqueline Maalouly, Elias Bou-Maroun, Nicolas Sok, Philippe Cayot, et al.. Iron intake among Lebanese women: sociodemographic factors, iron-rich dietary patterns, and preparation of hummus, a Mediterranean dish. Food and Nutrition Research, 2021, 65, pp.5556. ⟨10.29219/fnr.v65.5556⟩. ⟨hal-03123992⟩



Record views


Files downloads