Toxicological profile of cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, in functional assays with human, animal and bacterial cells

Abstract : Some strains of the endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus cereus produce a heat-stable ionophoric peptide, cereulide, of high human toxicity. We assessed cell toxicity of cereulide by measuring the toxicities of crude extracts of cereulide producing and non-producing strains of B. cereus, and of pure cereulide, using cells of human, animal and bacterial origins. Hepatic cell lines and boar sperm, with cytotoxicity and sperm motility, respectively, as the end points, were inhibited by <= 1 nM of cereulide present as B. cereus extract. RNA synthesis and cell proliferation in HepG2 cells was inhibited by 2 nM of cereulide. These toxic effects were explainable by the action of cereulide as a high-affinity mobile K+ carrier. Exposure to cereulide containing extracts of B. cereus caused neither activation of CYPlA1 nor genotoxicity (comet assay, micronucleus test) at concentrations below those that were cytotoxic (0.6 nM cereulide). Sahnonella typhimurium reverse mutation (Ames) test was negative. Exposure of Vibrio fischeri to extracts of B. cereus caused stimulated luminescence up to 600%, independent on the presence of cereulide, but purified cereulide inhibited the luminescence with an IC50% (30min) of 170nM. Thus the luminescence-stimulating B. cereus substance(s) masked the toxicitv of cereulide in B. cereus extracts to V fischeri. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Maria Andersson, Pasi Hakulinen, Ulla Honkalampi-Hamalainen, Douwe Hoornstra, Jean-Claude Lhuguenot, et al.. Toxicological profile of cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, in functional assays with human, animal and bacterial cells. Toxicon, Elsevier, 2007, 49 (3), pp.351-367. ⟨10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.10.006⟩. ⟨hal-01977773⟩

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