La diversité de l’écosystème microbien du tractus digestif équin

Abstract : The equine large intestine (cecum and colon) hosts numerous and various microbiota, which play an essential role in degrading andfermenting cell-walls into products directly used by the host. This microbiota is made of five major microbial communities (protozoa,bacteria, fungi, Archaea and virus) among which the most investigated are bacteria. These communities are equine specific.Protozoal diversities like fungal and viral ones have been described in terms of taxonomy but there is little knowledge about theirimplication in the digestive processes. Few studies have been conducted on the diversity of Archeae despite the potential contributionof equine livestock to greenhouse gas production. The bacterial community is diverse, belonging predominantly to the Firmicutes andBacteroides Phyla, and including bacteria with a wide range of functions (cellulolytics, amylolytics, glycolytics, lactate-utilizers andproteolytics) that are implicated in the ingested feed digestion, mainly plant fiber. This bacterial community differs between the cecaland colonic content and the fecal content. Factors specific to the host (genotype, individual variability) and/or environmental (diet,season, exercise) may alter the microbial communities’ diversity of the equine large intestine. This can induce large changes leadingto imbalances and sometimes to pathologies (colics, laminitis).
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Sophie Sadet-Bourgeteau, Véronique Julliand. La diversité de l’écosystème microbien du tractus digestif équin. INRA Productions Animales, Paris: INRA, 2012, 25 (5), pp 407 - 418. ⟨hal-01771647⟩

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